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Document 671

Message: There were undefined references

Version: 3.x, 4.x, 5.x - Scientific WorkPlace & Scientific Word


In the typeset text of your DVI or PDF file, some cross-references appear as ??. In the LaTeX window and the .log file, LaTeX posts this warning:

LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references.


A cross-reference in your document isn't correctly matched to a marker and LaTeX cannot generate the cross-reference.

The message occurs when the referenced marker is missing or is incorrectly referenced.

The condition can also occur if you specify only one LaTeX pass when you compile, especially when your document is a master document.


  1. Check the .log file to see if the warning appears:

    If the warning doesn't appear, all cross-references have been resolved.

    If the warning does appear, unresolved cross-references exist. The .log file indicates where the problems occur, with messages like this:

    LaTeX Warning: Reference `name' on page x undefined on input line y.

  2. Check that all markers are present and correctly referenced in your document.

  3. Typeset your document again, specifying at least two LaTeX passes.

  4. Check the new log file to make certain all cross-references are now resolved.

Last revised 06/15/06

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