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Document 723

LaTeX format files

Version: 4.x & 5.x - Scientific WorkPlace & Scientific Word

LaTeX format files contain information defining LaTeX hyphenation patterns, commands, and font metrics (.tfm) files for preloaded fonts. TeX uses format files to create a precompiled memory image of LaTeX, thus saving compilation time. Format files are created specifically for each different implementation of TeX.

The latest version of SWP and SW includes several different LaTeX format files created for TrueTeX:

  • A standard format file, latex.fmt, based on the standard LaTeX distribution. It uses OT1 font encoding for DVI files, which encompasses most but not all of the symbols that appear on the symbol panels and creates more portable documents than T1 font encoding.

  • A multilingual format file, latex_ml.fmt, the program default. It adds hyphenation patterns for several languages: American and British English, French, German, and New German. The file uses DC fonts and T1 font encoding, which includes all symbols on the symbol panels.

The program also includes two different format files created for pdfLaTeX.

Creating a new LaTeX format file

If you are very experienced with LaTeX, you may occasionally need to create a new LaTeX format file for your installation. For example, updating the version of LaTeX or Babel on your system or adding a hyphenation pattern for a different language requires a new format file.

NoteCreating format files involves working directly with the TeX Formatter and requires a thorough knowledge of TeX and LaTeX. Changing format files or LaTeX source files can cause irreparable damage to your installation.

ImportantFor safety, back up the existing TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\base directory in your program installation before you attempt to create a new format file.

The sections below provide instructions for

These instructions reflect how we created the format files for TrueTeX that are included with the latest version of SWP and SW. If you need to create a format file for a different TeX implementation, you may need to adapt these instructions.

Creating a new standard format file (latex.fmt)

If you update the version of LaTeX on your system, you must create a new LaTeX format file. For safety, back up the existing TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\base directory in your program installation before you begin, then follow these steps:

  1. Reinstall SWP or SW.

    Use the Repair Installation option in the installation program, which ensures that the default set of files is present.

  2. Delete, move, or rename the Babel hyphenation configuration file TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\required\babel\hyphen.cfg.

    The file isn't used in standard LaTeX.

  3. Generate the new format file:

    1. Start the TrueTeX Formatter from the SWP or SW program submenu.

    2. Choose CANCEL in the open dialog box.

    3. Choose the Preload= menu item.

    4. Choose Default.

    5. From the File menu, choose Open TeX source file and navigate to the TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\base directory.

    6. Type latex.ltx and choose Open.

      The Formatter generates the new format file and closes when the process is complete. The Formatter places two files, latex.fmt and latex.log, in your TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\base directory.

  4. Rename and move the new files.

    1. Rename the new files latex.fmt and latex.log to distinguish them from earlier format files.

      These instructions assume that you rename latex.fmt to latex_new.fmt and latex.log to latex_new.log.

    2. Move latex_new.fmt and latex_new.log to the TCITeX\truetex directory.

      Although TeX doesn't use latex_new.log, the file serves as a history of how the format file was created. We recommend that you preserve it.

  5. Create a formatter entry for the new format file:

    1. From the Typeset menu, choose Expert Settings, and then choose the Format Settings tab.

    2. Choose Add/Modify.

    3. In the Choose TeX format file area at the bottom of the TeX Formatter dialog box, enter the name of the new format file. Don't include the .fmt file extension.

    4. In the Name for TeX formatter area at the top of the dialog box, enter a name for the new format as you want it to appear in the list of available format files.

      Choosing a name for the new format preserves the name for your original format.

    5. If you want to change the name of the formatter as it appears in compilation messages, enter the new name in the Display appearance box.

    6. If the formatter requires the TrueTeX command handler, check Use TrueTeX command handler.

      Note that preinstalled formatters already have correct settings. See the TrueTeX documentation for more information.

    7. If you make an error, choose Revert to original and enter the settings again.

    8. Choose OK.

  6. Preview a document and check the .log file to verify that no TeX errors occurred and the new format is working correctly.

Creating a new multilingual format file (latex_ml.fmt)

If you have updated the version of LaTeX or Babel on your system or customized the hyphenation patterns in use, you must create a new LaTeX format file. For safety, back up the existing TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\base directory in your program installation before you begin.

  1. Reinstall SWP or SW.

    Use the Repair Installation option in the installation program, which ensures that the default set of files is present.

  2. Modify the fonttext.cfg file:

    1. In the TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\base directory, copy the fonttext.ltx file and rename the copy fonttext.cfg.

    2. Modify fonttext.cfg so that the T1 encoding scheme is the default:

      1. Using an ASCII editor, open the file.

      2. Change line that reads \newcommand\encodingdefault{OT1} to

        \newcommand\encodingdefault{T1}

        Note that this change causes DC fonts to appear in many documents.

      3. Save and close the file.

  3. If you are installing a new version of LaTeX, change the file oldDC.ins to accommodate the DC fonts. If you are using the files provided by a default SWP or SW installation, skip to the next step.

    1. Start the TrueTeX Formatter from the SWP or SW program submenu.

    2. Open the file oldDC.ins in the TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\base directory.

    3. Answer yes to all questions about overwriting files.

  4. If you are installing a new version of LaTeX, modify the language.dat file. If you are using the files provided by a default SWP or SW installation, skip to the next step.

    1. Using an ASCII editor, open the file TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\required\babel\language.dat, which preloads hyphenation patterns into the LaTeX format file.

    2. Find these lines in the file:

      =USenglish

      american ushyphen.tex

      english ukhyphen.tex

      =UKenglish

      =british

      french frhyphen.tex

      dutch nehyph2.tex

      german dehypht.tex

      ngerman dehyphn.tex

      The lines indicate the default set of hyphenation patterns for Babel.

    3. Change american ushyphen.tex to american ushyph.tex.

    4. Change french frhyphen.tex to french frhyph.tex.

    5. Save and close the file.

  5. Generate a new format file:

    1. Start the TrueTeX Formatter from the SWP or SW program submenu.

    2. Choose CANCEL in the open dialog box.

    3. Choose the Preload= menu item.

    4. Choose Default.

    5. From the File menu, choose Open TeX source file and navigate to the TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\base directory.

    6. Type latex.ltx and choose Open.

      The Formatter generates the new format file and closes when the process is complete. The Formatter places two files, latex.fmt and latex.log, in your TCITeX\TeX\LaTeX\base directory.

  6. Rename and move the files.

    1. Rename the new files to distinguish them from earlier format files.

      These instructions assume that you rename latex.fmt as latex_newml.fmt and rename latex.log as latex_newml.log.

    2. Move latex_newml.fmt and latex_newml.log to the TCITeX\truetex directory.

      Although TeX doesn't use latex_newml.log, the file serves as a history of how the format file was created. We recommend that you preserve it.

  7. Create a formatter entry for the new format file:

    1. From the Typeset menu, choose Expert Settings, and then choose the Format Settings tab.

    2. Choose Add/Modify.

    3. In the Choose TeX format file area at the bottom of the TeX Formatter dialog box, enter the name of the new format file. Don't include the .fmt file extension.

    4. In the Name for TeX formatter area at the top of the dialog box, enter a name for the new format as you want it to appear in the list of available format files.

      Choosing a name for the new format preserves the name for your original format.

    5. If you want to change the name of the formatter as it appears in compilation messages, enter the new name in the Display appearance box.

    6. If the formatter requires the TrueTeX command handler, check Use TrueTeX command handler.

      Note that preinstalled formatters already have correct settings. See the TrueTeX documentation for more information.

    7. If you make an error, choose Revert to original and enter the settings again.

    8. Choose OK.

  8. Preview a document and check the .log file to verify that no TeX errors occurred and the new format is working correctly.

Added 05/25/06



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