Document 102

Using Harvard Style Citations with Scientific Word 2.5

Jim Malcomson

Department of Economics, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK

Introduction

The BibTEX bibliography styles that come with Scientific Word number (or label) the items in the bibliography and use the corresponding number (or label) for references in the text. Many journals, however, do not number bibliography items and use the author's name and date of publication in parentheses - for example (Lamport, 1994) - for references in the text.

It is straightforward to adapt Scientific Word so that BibTEX generates "author date" style references using one of the Harvard family of bibliography styles. This note describes how.

What you need

You need the file harvard.sty and one or more Harvard bibliography style files (these have extension .bst) that can be obtained from a number of ftp sites. It is also useful to have the file harvard .tex (and its associated bibliography file harvard.bib) that documents the use of Harvard styles in LaTeX. The Harvard bibliography style files listed in the Harvard style documentation are agsm.bst, dcu.bst, jmr.bst, jphysics.bst, kluwer.bst and nederlan.bst but others are available (for economics I know of aer.bst and economet.bst). The bibliography style file determines the way the entries in the bibliography are constructed - the choice between them depends on what style you want.

Where to put the files

Put the file harvard.sty into the directory \swp25\tex\macros and the .bst files you want to use into the directory \swp25\bibtex.

Telling Scientific Word which Harvard bibliography styles you have available

You need to edit the sciword.ini file (swp-pro.ini file for Scientific WorkPlace) in directory \swp25 with an ASCII editor (such as Notepad) so that Scientific Word knows which of the Harvard family of bibliography styles you have available and adds them to the menu for you to choose from. The following steps do this.

  1. Find the section of the file that starts with the line

    [Bibliography]

  2. Find the line in this section that reads

    BibTEXstyles=plain,unsrt,alpha,abbrv

  3. Add to the end of this line the prefixes of the Harvard related .bst files you want to use (but not the .bst extension) separated by commas.

    When you have finished it might, for example, read

    BibTEXstyles=plain,unsrt,alpha,abbrv,agsm,dcu,kluwer

  4. Save the file.

Telling Scientific Word to use the Harvard styles

You can do this either by writing the required LaTeX code into your document directly or by customizing Scientific Word to provide this as an option. The former is quicker and simpler for a single document but has three disadvantages:

  1. you need to get the syntax exactly right each time you write it;

  2. when you save and re-open your document, Scientific Word will move the LaTeX code so that it no longer appears where you put it and you cannot simply delete the code from within Scientific Word if you decide you no longer want to use a Harvard style bibliography (see below for how you can delete it); and

  3. if you change the document style, the LaTeX code will be deleted by Scientific Word and you will have to re-write it.

Here are the two methods.

Writing LaTeX code directly into your document

  1. Open the Scientific Word document in which you want to use a Harvard style bibliography.

  2. From the File menu, choose Document Info (Alt+F, D).

  3. Click on Preamble (if this does not open automatically).

  4. Hit the down arrow key to remove the highlighting (so that you do not delete what is already there).

  5. On the line below the existing text, type

    \usepackage{harvard}

    or type

    \usepackage[dcucite]{harvard}

    (The first of these will give citations in the text with no comma between the author and the date as in (Lamport 1994), the latter will insert a comma as in (Lamport, 1994).)

  6. Click on OK.

If, after you save and re-open your document, you decide not to use a Harvard style bibliography after all, you can remove the command either by using an ASCII editor or by changing to another document style in Scientific Word (and then changing back again if you want).

Customizing Scientific Word to provide Harvard styles as an option

You can do this by editing the file packgs.opt in the directory \swp25\styles using an ASCII editor (such as Notepad). This can be done as follows.

  1. Copy the file packgs.opt to some other name (such as packgs.old) in case something goes wrong and you want to get back to where you started.

  2. Open the file packgs.opt with an ASCII editor.

  3. Go to the end of the file and, leaving a couple of blank lines after the end of the existing text, add the following lines:

    [harvard]

    1=Bibliography

    1.1=comma in citation,dcucite

  4. Save the file.

The following steps then select the option for a document.

  1. Open the document in Scientific Word.

  2. From the File menu, choose Style(Alt+F, y).

  3. Click on Add Packages.

  4. Click on arrow beside Base Package to bring up menu of packages.

  5. Click on "harvard".

  6. Click on "comma in citation" if you want a comma between author name and year in text citations.

  7. Click on OKto close Package Options dialog box.

  8. Click on OKto close LaTeX Style for Print and Preview dialog box.

Generating a Harvard style bibliography and citations

When you have carried out the above steps, you can select a Harvard bibliography style from within Scientific Word in exactly the way described in the manual for one of the BibTEX styles that comes with Scientific Word. Using File\Compile (Alt+F, L) from an open document to generate a bibliography will then automatically generate the corresponding Harvard style bibliography and "author date" citations. It is, however, important to use a Harvard bibliography style if you have selected "harvard" as a document package and to remove 'harvard" as a document package if you want to use a non-Harvard bibliography style. Otherwise, the results are unlikely to be what you expect.

Another customization

When installed as above, all the Harvard style citations generated by Scientific Word have the form "(Lamport 1994)" (or with a comma if you use the option dcucite). In many cases it is more convenient to have citations in the form "Lamport (1994)". Some experts regard this as encouraging a better, active voice writing style. The Harvard family of bibliography styles supports a number of different ways of citing references, including this alternative form. (See the documentation for the other forms of citation supported.)

If you would like all your citations to take this alternative form, you can get Scientific Word to do this with the following steps.

  1. Open your document in Scientific Word.

  2. From the File menu, choose Document Info(Alt+F, D).

  3. Click on Preamble(if this does not open automatically).

  4. Hit the down arrow key to remove the highlighting (so that you do not delete what is already there).

  5. On the line below the existing text, type

    \renewcommand{\cite}{\citeasnoun}

  6. Click on OK.

If you want to have some citations in one form and some in another, you need to use LaTeX code directly - or persuade TCI to provide support for them within Scientific Word!

If you decide not to use a Harvard style bibliography after all, it is important to remove the \renewcommand line that you put in the preamble or you will get a LaTeX error.

Warning

These instructions work with all the article styles I have tried but I have not tried them with some article styles, or with any of the other styles, available in Scientific Word.

Added 08/01/96

This document was created with Scientific WorkPlace.



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